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  1. Aircraft History and Future

    Ⅰ Aircraft History Early Aircraft Evolution In fifteenth Century, Da Finch designed a vertical screw - like helicopter, but it didn't go beyond empty talk. Geller designed and built monoplane glider model with adjustable cruciform tail, like the kite wing assembly in high angle range, which can change the weight and center. This gliding device has great significance in flight. The Wright brothers' first testing aircraft is completely controlled, on its own power, whose body is heavier than air, continued to hover without landing. That is "the world's first aircraft". UAV Evolution The First UAV Peter Cooper and Elmer A. Sperry invented the first automatic gyro stabilizer, which can make the aircraft keep balance in forward flight. This technology transformed successfully United States Navy Curtiss N-9 type trainer to the radio controlled UAV. UAV Types There are three types of UAV at present: fixed wing, helicopter, multi rotor. Fixed wing refers to the propulsion or pulling force that is generated by the power plant, which is generated by lifting the fixed wing of the fuselage and flying heavier than air in the atmosphere. The multi rotor is a special unmanned helicopter with three or more rotor axes. The motor rotates through the motor on each axis to drive the rotor to generate thrust. By changing the relative rotational speed between the different rotor, the size of the propelling force of the single axis can be changed and the trajectory of the aircraft can be controlled. Ⅱ multi-rotor UAV flight Motion Types At present, the motion mode can be roughly divided into four types: vertical motion, pitching motion, rolling motion, and yaw motion. Ⅲ UAV Future UAV Iteration First generation: all kinds of basic remote control aircraft; Second generation: static design, fixed camera, video and static photos, manual driving control; Third generation: static design, biaxial gimbal, high definition video, basic security mode, auxiliary driving; Fourth generation: revolutionary design, thri-axis gimbal, 1080p HD video or higher value instrument, improved safety mode, autopilot mode; Fifth generation: revolutionary design, 360 degree gimbal, 4K video or higher value instrument, intelligent driving mode; The sixth generation: business applicability, design conforming to safety and regulatory standards, platform and payload adaptability, automatic safety mode, intelligent driving model and complete autonomy, airspace consciousness. Ⅳ Analysis of UAV system Multi Rotor Brain- Flight Controller First of all, the flight controller acts as a special mixer for the multi rotor. The rise and fall of the remote controller's roll is converted to the size of the power output of the corresponding motor. In addition, now the flight controller has electric gyroscope, accelerometer, compass, barometer sensor. In the attitude mode, the attitude of the aircraft is analyzed by software algorithm. The correction of the attitude anomalies caused by the installation of the aircraft, the interference of the outside as well as the inconsistency between the components helps to maintain the stable state. Analysis of Multi Rotor Flight Control Module 1. FCU/main controller: built-in inertial measurement unit and CPU, for drone attitude perception, data processing, processing instructions, execution operations. 2.GMU/GPS&Compass module: built-in GPS receiver and antenna, electronic compass, used for drone location (latitude and longitude) locking, drone heading direction locking. 3.Power management module (PMU): reduce the voltage to 5V to support the main controller, test the battery voltage to provide low voltage protection for the drone. 4. Indicator light module (LIU/LED): provide instructions for the state of flight controller, flashes when in low voltage protection. 5. Video overlay module (OSD): shows flight controller data, height, speed, longitude and latitude, heading and so on. It will provide monitoring of drone state parameters when users are flying beyond visual line of sight. 6. External IMU: has higher performance of inertial measurement unit, which can measure more precise drone attitude data. Combined with advanced TopXGun industrial control algorithm, we can get better flight experience and more precise control. 7. Differential GPS module (DGPS): adopts RTK (Real - time kinematic) real time dynamic differential method, which is a major milestone in the application of GPS. 8. Data-Link: composed of air terminal and ground terminal, used in pairs, communicates in two ends. On the one hand, we can monitor the state parameters of the flight controller in real time. On the other hand, we can send instructions to autonomous flight of PC or mobile terminal devices through the ground station software to realize autonomous flight tasks. 9. BTU: for mobile terminal device to connect flight controller debugging parameters, especially for outdoor debugging, saving the tedious USB line connection. Multi Rotor Power- Motor Now the mostly used motor of the multi rotor is an external rotor brush-less motor. Brush-less motor removes the brush, so the most direct change is that there is no electric spark when the brush motor runs. This greatly reduces the interference of the electric spark to the remote control equipment. Multi Rotor Power- ESC The electrical input is DC, which can be connected to a voltage regulator or a lithium battery. The general power supply is around the 2-6 section of lithium battery. The output is a three-phase pulse DC, which is directly connected with the three-phase input of the motor. If the electric motor is turned on and the motor reverses, it is only necessary to change any of the two positions between the three lines. There is also a signal line, which is used to connect flight controller or receiver to receive the control signal, so as to change the output current and control the running speed of the motor. Multi Rotor Power- Positive and Negative Propellers The counter torsion is caused by the air resistance when the propeller rotates. According principle of mutual effect of the force, the counter torsion will drive the aircraft to rotate in the opposite direction of the propeller rotation. In order to counteract the reverse torque of the propeller, the four propellers nearby are different in the direction of the propeller rotation, so the positive and negative propellers are needed. The wind of the positive and negative propellers all blow down. A positive propeller rotates clockwise and a negative propeller rotates counterclockwise. When the normal quad axis flights, the four propellers counteracts each other. The principle of counter torsion is applied in multi rotor rotation Multi Rotor Drone Frame The frame is the body part of the multi rotor. The materials are usually made of nylon, plastic, aluminum alloy, glass fiber and carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is the most excellent composite material with high strength and rigidity, and it is the most widely used in the production of multi rotor drone frame. Multi Rotor Power Source-Lithium Polymer Battery At present, the most commonly used battery for multi rotor is lithium polymer battery. The nominal voltage of the monolithic core is 3.7V, which is 4.2V after full charge. The lowest discharge can not be less than 3V, otherwise, the core will cause permanent damage and cannot be repaired. The battery has the characteristics of slow charging (small charging current), fast discharge (high discharge current), and it's needed to use the specific charger. Multi Rotor Ground Command Station-Remote Controller Remote controller: it is a radio communication device, composed of RC transmitter and RC receiver. The RC transmitter is hand-held and RC receiver is an airborne terminal. It's needed to send control command to the RC receiver on the drone so as to achieve the wireless control of the drone.
  2. M2 flight controller M2 is TopXGun’s Mars series. It is designed with TopXGun’s second-generation hardware architecture and control algorithm. It is specially designed for unmanned aerial vehicles, with highly reliable and remarkable flight performances. Providing multi-platform SDK, M2 flight controllers are helpful for users to develop personalized unmanned aerial vehicles and tap into potentials of unmanned aerial vehicles. 1) Highly Reliable Components Reliability is always the foremost concern for components of M2 flight controllers from their designs to their type selection. All components of these flight controllers are industrial and strictly tested to guarantee safe flight of unmanned aerial vehicles. 2) Distributed Design M2 flight controllers have distributed designs for ensuring hardware and software modularization while increasing system reliability. The M2 flight controller in the basic version has 6 CPUs, which have their separate functions. 3) Intelligent Avionics System TopXGun’s ground stations can be applied in PC, iPad and Android devices through 900MHz wireless data transceivers. These devices can be selected according to actual demands, in order to exert remote control over aircraft 4) Powerful Product Performances In terms of designs, great importance is attached to product performances of M2 flight controllers, which adopt brand new multi-sensor fusion algorithms, attitudes and position control algorithms. Being helpful for high-precision centimeter-level positioning and long-range data transmission, they can greatly improve performances of unmanned aerial vehicles. 5) High-performance IMU M2 flight controllers are equipped with automotive-grade gyroscopes and accelerators. Compared with the last-generation products, the precision of the gyroscopes is 20 times higher and the seismic capacity is 10 times higher. The accelerators, with nitrogen-based damp-proof anti-vibration designs, show stronger damping capacity and higher precision. In addition, IMUs of M2 flight controllers are calibrated within the full range of temperature. In combination with the brand new sensor fusion algorithms, the precision of attitude measurements is within 0.5°. 6) Open Platforms and Applicability to Secondary Development M2 flight controllers have spare special APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) and provide SDK of Android/IOS. Combined with OCP, they are applicable to various supporting products of unmanned aerial vehicles and secondary development of airborne software. Apollo Airborne Computer Apollo, which is the brain of an unmanned aerial vehicle, has strong computing power, abundant interfaces and capacity for accessing 4G network. Carrying Linux operating system, integrated with TopXGun SDK and combined with M2 flight control, Apollo Ⅱ makes it more convenient to develop application scenarios of unmanned aerial vehicles and release more potential of the vehicles. 1) Strong computing power Equipped with Freescale i.MX6Q processor, Apollo is composed of four ARM Cortex-A9 processors, and its dominant frequency is up to 1.2GHz. Besides, it has 2GB DDR3 memory for operation and 16GB EMMC for storage, with strong computing power. In addition, it is equipped with a STM32F103 MCU as coprocessor, which is used for interacting with powerful real-time equipment and guaranteeing real-time of the entire system. 2) Support of Abundant Interfaces With many interfaces, Apollo is used for managing and controlling airborne devices, including mission payload, sensor and control module. 3) Fast Internet Connectivity Apollo has a built-in high-speed 4G module, which supports communications of China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom. Through 4G communications, users can make applications of unmanned aerial vehicles such as super remote control, cluster control and remote real-time monitoring possible, in order that unmanned aerial vehicles can really become online smart platforms. 4) Environment for Convenient Development Equipped with Linux operating system and integrated with Topxgun’s SDK, Apollo is quite convenient for developing airborne applications and software. Besides, Apollo is equipped with ROS and LocationS SDK, providing convenience for developing applications and software for unmanned aerial vehicles. 5) Low Power Consumption Apollo has low-power designs. When 4G communications are accessible, the maximum power consumption is as high as 8W. When 4G communications are inaccessible, the maximum power consumption is only 5W. With fan-free heat dissipation structures, Apollo is more reliable.
  3. T1-A Introduction T1- A is a mature flight controller for agricultural UAV. It provides rich and practical function that can meet the multiple requirements of the current agricultural UAV. By the integration of high precision sensor, the application of advanced industrial precision calibration algorithm as well as reasonable intelligent operation mode, the more efficient, accurate and convenient way of plant protection work can be realized. Install T1-A Step 1. Confirm multi-rotor type, forward direction and rotation direction of the motor/propeller. Step 2. Install the controller unit, connect every part. Installation and requirements FCU:The TopXGun logo should be facing the sky, with the orientation arrow pointing directly to the nose direction, please mount it on a barycenter place in board center of aircraft. PMU:Please do not mount it on any other electronic device, choose a ventilated place for cooling. Make sure the three CAN ports are convenient for connecting during installation. GPS/Compass:When installing the top side should be facing up, with the orientation arrow should be consistent with the FCU arrow direction, pointing directly to the nose direction. Mount it on the bracket horizontally. Connect it to any one of the CAN ports of PMU. It is recommended to use bracket included in package, otherwise, please make sure it is nonmagnetic. LIU:Mount in a good place to make sure the LIU is visible during flying, don't cover the USB port, connect it to any one of the CAN ports of PMU with the enclosed 3M adhesive tape. DCU:Choose the appropriate position on aricraft board and connect it to any one of the CAN ports of PMU. FIRU:Let the side printed with FIRU up and use together with GPS. Port Description FCU DCU FIRU Line connection diagram Test Setting the parameters according to the instructions of the parameter adjustment software. Calibration ESC Calibration Step 1: Push the throttle lever to the fully up position. Now the status light indicates the current GPS mode and flight mode. Step 2: Flip the CH5 switch from the fully up to the fully down positions for around 6—10 times, until the status light changes to solid red. Step 3: Keep the throttle position unchanged, disconnect the main power, and then recharge it. Now the status light blinks red, green and blue once. Step 4: Around 0.5 second after power on, you will hear motor beep-beep for twice, now pull the throttle lever to the fully down position within 2 seconds. The status light will blink red and blue alternately, then go back into normal instruction. Compass Calibration Horizontal Calibration Step 1: Put the drone on horizontal ground, ensure the body without vibration. Step 2: Make it perform toe-out locking action for 10 seconds, until the blue and green lights blink alternately. Step3: Loose the remote control lever. About 10 seconds later, there is only blue light blinks. About 15 seconds later, lights blink normally. Usage Please update the firmware before use. For updating firmware methods, see the T1-A user manual. Unlock (left) and lock (right) Fly Test Double check the items by following steps before flight, ensure safe flight. Step 1 Check before flight
  4. With the gradual maturity of UAV technology, the application of civil UAV is expanding. From search and rescue to observation and surveillance, aerial photography to traffic patrol, the X30GT has emerged as the time requires. With 12 million pixels, the 30x optical zoom telephoto camera is portable and quick to install. 1/1.8CMOS and 12 million effective pixels make the picture extremely clear. The 30x optical zoom lens can clearly capture the distant details, not only provide static photos, but also support for full HD video recording, which fully meets the need of industrial applications. The X30GT’s three-axis PTZ provides stability and accuracy up to 0.008. With the Rainbow R1 data chain, the X30GT can view shooting pictures and operate on the computer and pad in real-time. 8km transmission distance has greatly improved the operational radius and efficiency. Clicking on the picture can quickly lock and automatically enlarge the target. When the background is complex, the tap-zoom function enables the operation easier and simpler. The latest fully automatic tracking mode enables the X30GT to autonomously track the target within the selected area. With its high-quality image capturing ability and stable working condition, the X30GT can make the work more efficient and secure so that it can provide detailed images to support the various industries.
  5. In November 15th, the 2017 Global Mobile Broadband Forum, jointly sponsored by HUAWEI, GSMA and GTI, was opened in London, UK. More than 1400 representatives from global operators, vertical industries, industrial organizations attended the event. In this forum, unmanned aerial vehicles as a new industry has been the attention of all walks of life. TopXGun Robotics joined hands with HUAWEI X Labs, developed the latest unmanned aerial vehicle and has attracted the attention of the whole audience. This drone owns two innovation functions, i.e., 4.5G BLOS UAV control technology and thermal image transmission. The 4.5G can be used for BLOS control and thermal imaging video transmission in real time. The wireless charging task can be completed with the ground charging station when the battery is low. It solves the problems such as remote controller dependence, limited image transmission, inconvenient battery carrying, etc., which has greatly expanded the drone’s application. Participants use pad to send commands to the drone in Nanjing, China. The signals are transmitted through 4.5G and eventually accepted by drone. It can execute unlock, route flight and preset operations without remote controller. At the same time, videos shot by optical pod or infrared pod carried by drones, as well as battery, flight distance and other data can also be transmitted back to London through 4.5G. When the drone’s battery is low, it will alarm through the pad. Controllers can choose to land or charge autonomously. After receiving the autonomous charging instruction, the drone records the position of the breakout point, and then finds the nearest charging pile through the cloud system. It completes the autonomous route setting, and finally reaches the charging pile. With the precise landing of the drone, the ground charging pile also extends the charging head to complete the wireless charging. At this point, operators in London can remotely know the charging rate and battery information. After the completion of charging, the drone will take off automatically, and continue to operate according to the original recorded place. At present, with 4.5G technology, TopXGun can realize ultra long distance control and precise control. In future, with the development of 5G technology, networked drone era will come. The application of the drone will gradually expand in the transportation, logistics, security, protection and other fields, and eventually becomes the real "networked sky".
  6. 1.Advantages of Drones for Plant Protection.A.The lower pressure wind field makes the spraying effect better. B.The spraying efficiency is 30 times higher than that of artificial.C.Pesticide costs and labor costs are lower. D.The operation is safer and pesticide poisoning can be avoided. 2. General Configuration for Plant Protection DronesA.Flight PlatformFlight control system, Dynamical system, Drone frame, Signal transmission system, B.Minidisk Pesticide kitFlow control and monitoring system C.Ground Equipment Agricultural management systemSignal station Control equipment
  7. FCUThe optimization of the damping scheme can better adapt to the vibration of the plant protection drone, which can realize more stable and reliable flight. GMU1.GPSUpgrade the highly-gain antenna, improve the quality of star search, and effectively enhance the anti-interference performance. 2. Magnetic compass Anti-interference performance is enhanced, effectively guaranteeing the plant protection machine in the strong magnetic interference situation. PMU1.Enhancement in power supply capacity can work continuously under 3A and 5V. 2.Enhancement in anti-static ability can resist 8KV high voltage. 3.The power line is thicken, the installation is more firm, the conductive performance is stronger. 4. Update the ARS power module, with stronger anti surge and anti reverse function.LIU1.Anti-static ability increases, which can resist 10KV high voltage. 2. Waterproof, dust-proof, anti-corrosion function. For more details, please contact
  8. In the mouth of pioneer Zhang Yu, one of his frequently quoted words is "lucky"". During two years of entrepreneurship, he also admitted that the product development process is not plain sailing. They have once felt confused and sad when faced numerous problems.
  9. Flight controller itself is highly demanding of technology, which is the advantage of TopXGun. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is able to realize unmanned flight because of its "brain" - flight control system. It is precisely because of the flight controller, UAVs can complete automatic takeoff, automatic navigation, independent cruise, landing and a series of independent movements. In the early years of UAVs, the focus was mostly on how to realize stable take-off, how to fly higher and faster, and now it is more emphasis on intelligence, terminalization and clustering. UAVs are no longer just toy, but tools that can be used in a variety of scenarios. The UAV was able to have such a change, largely thanks to the development of flight control technology, and today we’d like to invite TopXGun who is focus on the flight controller to offer us new vision to the UAVs’ industrial application. Based on sufficient technology accumulation, access to UAV flight control market. "Dreams are like underwear. They must be there, but it's not appropriate to show them to others." CEO Zhang Yu said a word, very interesting, but enough to see the whole team are low-key and introverted, in the mean time, there is no lack of appropriate Internet genes. When talk to CTO Yin Liangliang, he said: "Low-key attitude has been the philosophy of our company. We, a UAV flight control research and solutions provider, have been endeavour to meet customer’s demand. To real solve the problem of customers can better create value for customers. To promote the progress of UAV industry, and promote the application of UAVs in various industries, has been our goal." Doing things in low-key, but the technology of TopXGun is not "low-key". The core team are from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beihang University and other aviation professional institutions and domestic research related to UAVs. With 10 years of industrial experience and product development capabilities, TopXGun has been engaged in research and development of military UAV. Before the venture, they have also participated in a variety of military UAV research and development, including fixed wing, helicopter and multi-rotor, and now is based on multi-rotor UAVs. CTO Yin Liangliang's answer is not surprising to the question why choose UAV as the venture field: "In 2013, domestic UAV began to develop rapidly. On the basis of previous technology, we began to enter the market for UAV flight controller." UAV flight control system and solutions provider Flight control technology is one of the core technologies of UAV, but many manufacturers did not fully grasp the technology, not because they do not want to do research, but most of them are limited to the weak accumulation of technology. Yin Liangliang added: "we were endeavour in the flight control field for many years, so that our accumulate mature technology solutions provide us the status of the third party to enter into the UAV market." "We are positioning ourselves as UAVs’ flight control system and UAVs solutions providers." He said, in the ecological UAV chain, we only do what we can do best to provide the most professional products and service. Considering market demand, we cooperates with customers to launch a complete industrial program in plant protection, security, patrol line, surveying and mapping, logistics and other applications." Any kind of product’s research and development, production, testing and sales will encounter various difficulties, not to mention the flight control system which demands of higher technical requirements. When talking to how to overcome the difficulties in the process of design and development of products, Yin Liangliang said: "Hovering, stability and anti-interference of UAV flight control system are the difficulties. We can solve these problems from two aspects: one is to fully understand the actual demands of customers, analyze and solve problems in practical applications. On the other hand, TopXGun itself in the flight control research has deep technical accumulation, and we will continue to increase investment in research and development, so that each iteration are tested and verified thoroughly." Combine flight controller and monitoring platform, solving illegal flight from the origin. When it comes to drones, they have to say the huge negative impact of illegal flight. Although the state has introduced the relevant UAV real name policy, which can serve as certain constraint, the policy "power" has yet to be strengthened. When talk to the "illegal flight" topic, Yin Liangliang said that only a standardized management can ensure the stable development of the UAV industry. He said: "we have been in response to industry call to fully cooperate with the competent authorities to formulate various standards and specifications. As a flight control research and development enterprise, we also have the responsibility and obligation to contribute our strength for the healthy and orderly development of the industry. At the beginning of the design, we have taken into account the supervision of the competent authorities’ docking platform. So that we can solve illegal flight from the origin through technical means of real-time control of drones."