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  1. Hey, guys! I'm so confused that why the capacitor is DC blocking, but the battery (DC) can indeed charge the capacitor? I've never thought about this until I read it in the book recently. I really have no idea about it. I've read some articles like this, but I still don't know how it works. If anyone knows why this happens, please tell me something about it. Any ideas would be greatly appreciated.
  2. Hello guys! I want to design my own drone with analog devices. From amplifying sensor signals to increasing range of my transceiver – to built a drone my application will benefit from high-quality amplifiers. So, do you have some amplifier recommendations? Thank you!
  3. hyathway

    A PCB for a Drone

    I'm making a drone, and would love if somebody can review my work on the PCB layout.Image (red is top, blue is bottom, circles indicate holes and side transfers purple is glue): What is supposed to happen: Input from the radios is PWMs 1-6, which is an RF receiver putting in the raw values of the control sticks. The board is supposed to be able to be programmed via the ICE 10 component. The MCU is going to be able to take input from the BMI055 (accelerometer) and GPS and validly parse that. The Li-po inputs are for reading batteries, each wire (besides the first) is a cell. The aux components are of no concern now. PWMs 7-12 are the output, and go to a bunch of ESCs, which control the motors. I feel I'm missing a bunch of passives; the PCB doesn't look like any other I've seen (in the fact that it only has a few resistors and 3 capacitors with advanced components). Component reference: GPS: RXM-GPS-R4 MC1: AC32UC3 U2 and U3: Crystals U1, AUX1, AUX2, all PWMs, U13, and U14: Connectors REG1: LD1117 (3.3V 800mA) ACL1: BMI055 3-axis accelerometer USB: Type B jack ANT1: GPS antenna TANTCAP: 33uF tantalum capacitor
  4. Drones are awesome. They are great tools and some fun to mess around with. This post is designed to help you build a cheapish quadcopter that can get you started on your love of quadcopters. You may have seen the dpi phantom and such which cost around 1000-2000 dollars. This basic quadcopter should only cost around 200-300 dollars depending on how many parts you already have.Then again this quadcopter will not have GPS hold or altitude hold but these are easy to add to the board if you would like later on. When finished you may try putting on go pros, gimbals and other things you desire. This post is aimed at those who want a cheaper quadcopter and want to enjoy building and designing their own quadcopter. For this instructable I try to make it so that anyone who has no experience can build their own quadcopter. Please bear with me if you already know some stuff.REMEMBER: quadcopters are fun things to use. BUT they have powerful motors and sharp propellors. NEVER work on the quadcopter with the propellors on. NEVER fly above crowds and try to stay away from homes and cars. If we all follow these guidelines quadcopters will be fun for everyone for a long time to come. Thanks.Disclaimer: I am not responsible for any fails, injury, or waste of money. This is simply what i did and what found out. Thanks .Step 1: Go Get The Parts Here is a list of stuff you will need.Control board:Naze 32 acro versionFrame:sk450 frame (the legs on mine are 3d printed and do not come with the quadcopter)Transmitter and receiver:basic 6 channel turnigy transmitter and receiver9 channel better turnigy transmitter and receiverany other receiver and transmitter that you like or have already.Motors x4:1000kv motorsPropellors x4 each: Counter Clockwise propellors (red) and `Clockwise propellors (red) get 4 of eachESC's x4:30 amp afro escBattery:4000mah 10c multistage battery (you can choose most 3s batteries above 2200mah, This battery is good because it is 10c making it lighter and still having longer flight time) ps. I have a 50-60c 2200mah battery so ignore that, its just i haven't gotten around to getting a new one yet. Mine is heavy and low capacity and i only get 5 minutes flight time.es above 2200mah, This battery is good because it is 10c making it lighter and still having longer flight time) ps. I have a 50-60c 2200mah battery so ignore that, its just i haven't gotten around to getting a new one yet. Mine is heavy and low capacity and i only get 5 minutes flight time.Battery Charger:IMAX B6 AC or DC charger (COPY) (you can get the genuine if you like but not necessary)Power distribution board:4 socket power distribution boardCable ties: Get this possibly from hardware store or look on hobbykingDouble sided foam tape (mounting tape): get this from local hardware storeheat shrink(optional): get from where you like.Velcro (optional): very useful buy where it is cheapestThink about getting a hex head set of screwdrivers. They are very useful and you will need to get one eventually or get an align key from you local hardware story.This could cost 250-350 dollars approximately.Step 2: Understand your partsControl Board: The control board is what helps you control your quadcopter and is the brain of your quadcopter. It will manage the signals given to it and make the quadcopter more stable and easy to fly. I started off with a kk2 and wasn't happy with it so hobbyking replaced it with a naze 32 acro board. Acro does not mean it is acrobatic it just means that the control board isn't the full version (gps and barometric pressure etc in full version). This board is a great one and I strongly recommend it.Frame: The frame is one of the simplest parts of your quadcopter and one of the key parts. It hold the whole thing together. It holds the motors and other bits together into your actual quadcopter. I chose the sk450 as it was the desired size and was rather popular and had easily accessible spares.Transmitter and Receiver(tx and rx): The transmitter and receiver allow you to control the quadcopter. The tx or transmitter sends the signal and is the one you will hold whereas the rx or receiver is the one on the quadcopter receiving the signal and sending it to the control board. I like the turnigy 9x and 9xr. The 9xr is nicer but also more expensive and you still need to get a module and receiver for it. I chose the orange dsm2/dsmx module. This you don't need to understand. Just remember that you can use a tx and rx you already own as long as it has 6 channels. The turnigy 9x is a simple set with 8 or 9 channels and a receiver (although the rx is rather bulky) and i recommend it as a starter tx and rx set.Motors:The motors on the quadcopter convert the electrical energy into your kinetic energy in the form of a propellor spinning. I chose 1000kv motors from kynix and i think they are alright. You can choose similar ones if you would like or understand what you are doing. The motors have 3 wires which shows they are brushless. This means they are more efficient and the common rc motor.Propellorsropellors create your thrust and cause the quadcopter to fly. I chose 9x4.7 props. This is rating for propellors that defines the pitch and the diameter of the prop. The 9 is the diameter and the 4.7 is how far forward it would move for one rotation in theory. You can choose slightly bigger or smaller props if you know what you are doing. Remember the numbers always go upwards on a quadcopter. You need to remember to get clockwise and counterclockwise props. They are needed to counteract torque which wants to spin your quadcopter around uncontrollably. Trust me get cw and ccw props and get lots ( you will break them A LOT).ESC's: Electronic speed controller. These are put between the power distribution board and motor to control the speed of each motor. They have two wires on one side which go to the power distribution board which leads to the battery. On the other side they have three large wires which go to the motors wires. There are also three smaller wires which go to the control board. These handle the signal and get the info from the control board to know how fast to spin the motors.Battery: The battery is a lithium polymer battery, similar to what is in phones. They are very light and powerful. This powers the quad. I chose a 3c battery which means it has 3 cells (kinda like small batteries) joined together inside. This gives me 11.1volts or up to 12.6 volts when full. Each cell has a nominal voltage of 3.7 volts. It is a 4000mah battery which is rather large and indicates the capacity of the battery. It has a 10c discharge rating. 1c is equal to 4 amps for this battery so 10 times that is 40amps meaning you can safely draw 10 amps without the battery being damaged. My motors only pull 21amps max so that is fine.Charger: The max is a good charger and I linked the copy version which is cheaper but i think should be just as good. If you like you can get the original. This charger can handle 1 cell to 6 cells so this is good. It runs of ac power. It has a us plug so get an adapter for your country. For this battery you can charge it at 4.0 amps safely which is 1c and is the safe way of doing it. I recommend charging at 3.8 amps because that makes the batteries life longer.Power distribution board: This is handy part of the quadcopter which you can make yourself but is cheap to buy so why not?? It is rated for 20 amps which is borderline for this quadcopter but works fine for me. It takes the batteries power and splits it into four plugs which fits the esc's an powers them which in turn power the motors.Cable ties: handy for quadcopter buildingDouble sided foam tape:handy for quadcopter building also good for vibration dampening and control board mounting.Heat shrink:handy for quadcopter building (not really necessary for this build)Velcro:handy for quadcopter building and sticking stuff to other stuff temporarily e.g. batteries.Hex head screwdriver set:handy for quadcopter building. You will need one for the frame building.
  5. In this tutorial, I am going to explain step by step how to built a 250 Quadcopter Drone. I had already built the drone when I decided to make this tutorial, so all the soldering and some construction is already made, but I will try to explain how to do it. Now, I could do a presentation of what a drone is, how many types of drones there are, etc...but, if you have arrived here you know how to use Google ;). My model is based on the Hobby King Color 250 chassis, is not too big, but neither too small. It is my first drone, I decided to built it by myself instead of buying one because I find it cheaper and more entertaining. I hope that this tutorial can help you built one yourself, and spread the hobby of drones even more. Well, lets get to it: Step 1: Materials I am going to list all the materials I needed when I built my drone, and I will try to link them to a place where you can buy it, or something similar that will get the same work done. Chassis: H-King Color 250(x1) Motors: 4 individual motors http://www.kynix.com/Product/Cate/757.html ESC:HobbyKing 10A ESC 1A UBEC (x4) Flight controller:AfroFlight Naze32 Rev6(x1) Propellers: Any type of 5030 will do (included with chassis, however I recommend buying more because they break easily) Batteries: I recommend around 1500mAh and 40C, anything bigger will be too heavy and smaller will be to little power. ZIPPY COMPACT 1500mAh 3S 40C(x1) or (as many as you want), so you can fly as many as you like. RC emitter & receiver:Quanum i8 8ch 2,4GHz(x1) FPV Camera: If you buy it in Spain I recommend: Mini camera 600TVL con Filtro. If you are from elsewhere, this one is the most similar: Mini CMOS 600TVL FPV Camera.(x1) FPV emitter: If you buy it in Spain I recommend: Mini transmisor de video 32CH 200mW . If you are from elsewhere: SkyZone TS5823 32CH 200mW.(x1) Screen or googles: Screen: 7 inch monitor with receiver included. Googles:Quanum DIY FPV Google V2 Pro. (x1) Some cables. Connectors: Watch out for the connectors of your battery, it can be XT-60, that is the one I use, or other. Soldering tin. Bolts/Screws. (some come with the chassis, others don't). Battery alarm: optional, but can be handy to know when the batteries are dried out. Step 2: SAFETY Drones are not toys. You have to be very careful when building or flying them. Here are some safety tips I recommend you follow: Building the drone: Soldering can be dangerous, be very careful. Wires transmit heat, so consider having some tweezers or forceps to hold them and not burn your fingers. Once you have everything in place, you might want to put on the battery to see if it works, but please, NEVER EVER put the propellers on while in the working bench, because you never know when will the motors will be armed the first time you connect the battery, and it could hurt you really, really bad. Flying the drone: Fly in open spaces, where if something goes wrong, the only thing that suffers is the drone. It is better if only your drone is destroyed in a crash than if apart from your drone, you break someone's windshield, or window. The first time you fly it, try having the drone always in sight, even if you have FPV goggles. Take your time to learn how to control the drone. Every time you fly, make sure your propellers do not touch any wire when rotating, or they could cut them and something will go wrong. Batteries: Li-Po batteries can explode, corrode and provoke dangerous fires. Use only Li-Po certified chargers and try to buy them from somewhere reliable. These are my safety tips, I recommend you follow them or create your own safety procedures to ensure you can enjoy your drone the best way possible. Step 3: Assemble the base. So, you have now everything you need to start building your drone. First, you have to assemble the chassis, but not entirely, only the bottom so you can add the flight controller and other things later. The one I have used, the 250 Color, is very easy to assemble, just 4 black cylinders that you have to place in their respective places and put the bolt from under the base. Other models may have other ways of assembly, but I think most of them will be quite easy. Step 4: Time to solder Now you have to solder the pins on the flight controller. I have used a Naze32 rev6. This model has 3 groups of pins you need to solder. Groups number 1 and 3 are easy, however, for group number 2, I recommend you buy extra pins that have a 90º corner so you can pass the wires under the flight controller. This way, you gain some order with the wires, once everything is connected. Then, the ESCs, is is very easy. Red on +, black on -. Do not change the polarity, because it will damage the ESCs. Now, the battery connector, these wires are big, so put a lot of tin and solder where it puts Vin 14,8V Max, once again the red on the +, and the black on the-. You have to solder the FPV gear also, I have made a quick diagram that can be useful for most of the cameras and receivers. For the motors, some come with bananas easy to connect, for others, you will need to solder them to the ESC as shown on the diagram. Look out for the changes in the wires of the motors, two of them rotate Clock-Wise (CW) and the other Counter-Clock-Wise(CCW). Do not forget to put some tape, or Heat Shrink Tubing so that the things you have soldered do not touch each other. Step 5: Connections and more connections. Once everything is well soldered, time to connect all the things. I have made some diagrams that may help you will help you connect everything. Make sure connect correctly the motors in their respective numbers in the Naze32. Each receiver is different, but most of them connect the same. Make sure the FPV camera is fastened somehow, or it will jump all around when you fly the machine. Step 6: Check and double check Once everything is connected, take your time to make sure everything is right, no loose wires, no metals touching each other, etc... I have included close photos of my motors so you can see the soldered wires and the numbers. Step 7: Finish the assembly You are nearly finished, just finish the assembly of the chassis and you are nearly good to go. One quick tip, try putting the receiver antenna connection in the hole the chassis has, so you can have a quick way to put and remove the antenna. REMEMBER, do not put the propellers, the photo you see with the propellers is because the drone has NO BATTERY, therefore it cannot be armed accidentally. You may need some velcro straps to fix the battery and a camera for recording in flight. Step 8: Software and Calibrations. Show All Items There are many softwares that can be used to program a flight controller like the Naze32, and others. I have used Cleanflight, for no reason in particular. Follow step by step the instructions I have made with the images, and I think you will find no problem in instilling a firmware on your flight controller. Unfortunately, I cannot advise you too much on this subject, because I am a rookie in these type of software. You can copy my settings, and then calibrate your drone according to your experiences while flying. For as much as I know, the Naze32 has 3 modes of flying: Angle, Horizon andAcro. In Angle mode, the drone will balance itself and it will NOT let you tilt it more than a certain degree, I think is 70º o around that number. It is great to learn how to control the drone, but, you cannot do loopings or flips in this mode. In Acro mode, you are free. The drone will NOT balance itself, so if you tilt it too much, it will fall if you do not recover a stable position. This mode is for doing crazy tricks, but I recommend you to be patient and first of all gain control of your drone. Lastly, Horizon mode is a mix between the two others. It will balance itself, but you have certain freedom do to flips and rolls, because you are allowed to tilt it as much as you can. I think this is the best mode to fly in the everyday use. You can do some cool tricks, and have your back covered if you loose control, just let the commands free and the drone will balance itself. (only, do not cut throttle to the minimum, just leave Yaw, Pitch and Roll free). Getting the drone to do exactly want you want is tricky, so be patient and enjoy the learning. Step 9: Propellers and final check. So, you have now a fully operational 250 Quadcopter Drone, by the way, do you know what does the 250 mean? It is the distance in millimeters between two motors that rotate in the same direction, for example, motors 1 and 4. Anyways, next thing to do is place the propellers. You have to take into consideration that the propellers are not all the same, there are CW propellers and CCW propellers. CW propellers usually are labeled with an R after the number 5030. So, take two 5030R and two 5030 propellers, put the ones with the R on the CW motors, and the ones with no R in the CCW. REMEMBER not to arm your drone until it is safe to fly. Now you are ready to go!! Go to an open area, prepare all your equipment. Before turning everything on, take some time to be sure the propellers do not collide with anything and the battery and cameras are well fastened. Then,once everything is on, first the RC emitter, then goggles or screen and lastly the drone itself, you are free to arm the drone and fly!! Step 10: Lift Off!! You are now capable of flying your drone! Remember, be safe and have fun!! Thanks for reading this tutorial and I hope it was useful for you